• Table of Contents
    • Abstract
    • Keywords
    • Article
      • What are the numbers?
      • Gender differences in K-12 and undergraduate educational outcomes
      • Gender differences in tenure-stream positions
        • Hiring
        • Opting out
        • Economics
      • Productivity
      • Promotion
      • Salary
        • Field and rank
        • Productivity
        • Parenthood penalty
        • Monopsony
        • Remaining gaps
      • Other outcomes
      • Potential interventions
      • Conclusions
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • How to cite this article

gender and academics

Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn and Jessica McCloskey
From The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Online Edition, 2016
Edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume
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Although women have reached parity and surpassed men in the attainment of bachelor’s degrees (Goldin et al., 2006; Ceci et al., 2014), their representation within academic departments and disciplines depends on the field and rank. Here, we review the literature about women in academia, focusing on the evidence from the economics literature, but supplementing it with notable studies from other disciplines. We also examine the special case of the economics profession, where – surprisingly – women’s progress has stagnated.
We start by describing the representation of women in science academia and its antecedents in higher education. Since, in mathematics-intensive sciences, the under-representation has its roots prior to the doctorate, we briefly summarise what is known about gender differences related to mathematics and science at earlier ages. In particular, we examine the impact of role models, bias and stereotype threat in explaining the differences. We then transition to research on gender differences in academic career outcomes, considering issues related to work–life balance and bias in the academic hiring process, in academic productivity, in promotion and in salaries. Finally, we discuss how policies influence the representation of women in academia.
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How to cite this article

Ginther, Donna K., Shulamit Kahn and Jessica McCloskey. "gender and academics." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Online Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online. Palgrave Macmillan. 19 January 2018 <http://www.dictionaryofeconomics.com/article?id=pde2016_G000220> doi:10.1057/10.1057/9780230226203.3967

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